Black Sneakers Adults’ Low Kangaroos Dk Omnicoil Ii Unisex Black Grey 522 Top Schwarz xqqg0R6 Black Sneakers Adults’ Low Kangaroos Dk Omnicoil Ii Unisex Black Grey 522 Top Schwarz xqqg0R6 Black Sneakers Adults’ Low Kangaroos Dk Omnicoil Ii Unisex Black Grey 522 Top Schwarz xqqg0R6 Black Sneakers Adults’ Low Kangaroos Dk Omnicoil Ii Unisex Black Grey 522 Top Schwarz xqqg0R6 Black Sneakers Adults’ Low Kangaroos Dk Omnicoil Ii Unisex Black Grey 522 Top Schwarz xqqg0R6 Black Sneakers Adults’ Low Kangaroos Dk Omnicoil Ii Unisex Black Grey 522 Top Schwarz xqqg0R6
Kangaroos Black Low Adults’ Sneakers Grey Top 522 Omnicoil Ii Unisex Dk Black Schwarz
1988 Sep;44(3):335-42.

Abstract

Ongoing interest in the improvement of pain management with opioid analgesics had led to the investigation of sublingual opioid absorption. The present report determined the percent absorption of selected opioid analgesics from the oral cavity of normal subjects under conditions of controlled pH and swallowing when a 1.0 ml aliquot of the test drug was placed under the tongue for a 10-minute period. Compared with morphine sulfate at pH 6.5 (18% absorption), buprenorphine (55%), fentanyl (51%), and methadone (34%) were absorbed to a significantly greater extent (p less than 0.05), whereas levorphanol, hydromorphone, oxycodone, heroin, and the opioid antagonist naloxone were not. Overall, lipophilic drugs were better absorbed than were hydrophilic drugs. Plasma morphine concentration-time profiles indicate that the apparent sublingual bioavailability of morphine is only 9.0% +/- 11.9% (SD) of that after intramuscular administration. In the same subjects the estimated sublingual absorption was 22.4% +/- 9.2% (SD), indicating that the sublingual absorption method may overestimate apparent bioavailability. When the oral cavity was buffered to pH 8.5, methadone absorption was increased to 75%. Thus, an alkaline pH microenvironment that favors the unionized fraction of opioids increased sublingual drug absorption. Although absorption was found to be independent of drug concentration, it was contact time dependent for methadone and fentanyl but not for buprenorphine. These results indicate that although the sublingual absorption and apparent sublingual bioavailability of morphine are poor, the sublingual absorption of methadone, fentanyl, and buprenorphine under controlled conditions is relatively high.

PMID:
2458208
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Similar articles

See reviews... See all...

Cited by 18 PubMed Central articles

See all...

Related information

522 Sneakers Dk Kangaroos Schwarz Grey Low Adults’ Black Omnicoil Black Ii Unisex Top Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Multi Stuart Women's Pipecatalan Espadrille Weitzman wx6CFAqxP
Support Center
Grey Low Top Ii Adults’ Schwarz Sneakers Kangaroos Black 522 Dk Black Unisex Omnicoil